A major shift in the Indian automotive sector: switch to lithium-ion batteries!
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As we all know, the most ways of transportation in Southeast Asian countries in India are two-wheeled vehicles and three-wheeled vehicles. At present, India will usher in a major transformation in the automotive field → switch to lithium-ion batteries (NMP solvent is one of the cathode materials of lithium batteries)! India is also entering the EV era. A conservative estimate is that there will be 6 million electric vehicles in India by 2025.
The main drivers of adoption are the FAME-II program, favorable state-level policies, mandated emissions reductions, and the proven lower life cycle cost of electric vehicles. This EV adoption is also clearly being driven by lithium-ion batteries. Even at a conservative 40 percent EV penetration, India needs about 60 percent of lithium-ion batteries.
India’s EV ecosystem is unique. The Indian population mainly travels on two- and three-wheelers, which account for more than 80% of the vehicles on the road. This segment is clearly undergoing disruptive changes. Commercial tricycles and L5 loader vehicles, the fastest model with lithium batteries(NMP solvent is one of the cathode materials of lithium batteries).
According to Wright’s Law, the cost of lithium-ion batteries has decreased significantly over the past decade. Battery costs will be reduced from $1,000/GWh in 2010 to $150/GWh in 2022. So as battery costs continue to fall, demand for electric vehicles will continue to rise.
India recently launched the Advanced Battery Chemistry-Production Related Incentive (ACC-PLI) scheme to establish 50 GWh of lithium battery production. The programme is independent of technology and chemistry. As batteries boast higher energy densities and longer cycle life, incentives have increased accordingly, opening the door to new technology innovations in cell chemistry.
【Lithium-ion technology】Lithium-ion battery technology is still developing.(NMP solvent is one of the cathode materials of lithium batteries)
Until recently, there were two main chemistries – LFP (Lithium Iron Phosphate) and NMC (Nickel Manganese Cobalt) that were heavily studied.
NMC has higher energy density, while LFP has higher life cycle and is considered to be a safer lithium battery material, especially under the existing conditions in India. Even under the NMC material, there are variants such as NMC111, NMC622, NMC811 (specifying the percentage of nickel, manganese, cobalt in the cathode of a lithium battery)(NMP solvent is one of the cathode materials of lithium batteries).
Scientists have also found that solid-state batteries are inherently safer because they are not flammable, and there is a lot of research going on in this area.
Of course, scientists are also working on silicon or metal anodes.
In the next ten years, scientists will continue to conduct research on lithium batteries(NMP solvent is one of the cathode materials of lithium batteries), and will continue to improve battery technology to bring safer, non-flammable batteries for vehicles to the world.